If you missed the Photography series you can start here:
- Basics to Photography
- Aperture Photography
- Learn about your ISO setting
- Shutter Speed Photography
- The Exposure Triangle
- Photo Composition
- Capturing the every day moments
- 10 Photography tips to help you edit your pictures
- Some more Photography tips
- My Photography Tips
Hi, my name is Shari Hanson and I’m a photographer from Huntington Beach, CA. I’m excited to be a guest on I Heart Naptime to tell you about shutter speed photography!
The easiest way for me to understand how my camera works is by comparing it to the way my eyes work. With ISO determining how sensitive your eyes (or camera) is to light, the aperture acts like our pupil by expanding (opening wider) to allow more light, or contracting (squinting) to limit light and shutter speed acts like our eyelids by controlling the length of TIME that the shutter is open.
Shutter Speed is in fact measured in fractions of a second or in seconds. So, if you set your shutter speed to 1/1000s, that really means 1/1000th of a second (FAST!). If you set your shutter speed to 1/30s, that really means 1/30th of a second (SLOW!). The larger the denominator is, (denominator=the number on the bottom of the fraction), then the faster the shutter speed. Whereas the smaller the denominator, the slower the shutter speed.
One thing to always consider with shutter speed is the focal length of the lens you are shooting with. For example, if I’m using a 50mm lens, I should generally set my shutter speed to 1/50s or higher. So, if you’re shooting with an 85mm, then set it to at least 1/85s; 100mm, then set it to at least 1/100s. Setting your shutter speed to anything lower than the focal length will most likely result in some sort of camera shake or blur (unless you are using a tripod!).
When you want to show motion, you should use a slow shutter speed (small denominator, or imagine opening and closing your eyes very slowly). The following image is an example of using a slow shutter speed to blur the sand that the girls were throwing up in the air.
In this case, I was using my 16-35mm lens at 33mm. My shutter speed was set to 1/30s – which is pretty slow for a hand-held image. However, the image stabilization in my camera, plus a higher ISO and me holding my breath while I depress the shutter button resulted in an image where the girls were still in focus, but the sand was blurry.
Another way to show motion is called panning. The basic idea is that you pan, or move your camera along in time with the moving subject and end up getting a relatively sharp subject but a blurred background. This technique gives the image a feeling of movement and speed. In order to get the right blur, using 1/30s is generally a good place to start, but depending on lighting, you might have to bump it up or down a little. Just play with it until you get it right. The key to panning is to move your camera (pan) at exactly the same speed as your subject. The following image is an example of panning:
When you want to freeze or stop motion, you should use a fast shutter speed (large denominator, or imagine quickly blinking). The following images are examples of using a fast shutter speed to STOP the motion of the baby being tossed into the air and the runner crossing the finish line.
Now you try it!
Exercise #1: Find something moving, like a ceiling fan, a child running/jumping/riding a bike, cars driving past, etc. Open and close your eyes slowly. What did you see? It probably looked a tad blurred. Now blink quickly, what did you see? More like watching a filmstrip?
Exercise #2: Now use your camera to do the same thing you just did with your eyes blinking. The easiest way to do this experiment is to set your camera to Shutter Priority Mode, “Tv” or “S” on your dial. This will allow you to control the shutter speed while your camera does the rest. Does this mean your pictures will come out perfectly exposed every time? NO! But with adequate lighting, it will work for the purpose of this exercise. Take pictures of something in motion at 1 second, 1/8s, 1/30s, 1/100s, 1/250s, 1/400s, 1/1000s, etc. And then compare your images. What do you see?
Here is a small chart to guide you in different situations with motion:
To SHOW motion (keep in mind you WILL need a tripod for the following):
- Rides (ferris wheel/carousel): around 1 second
- Moving water (waves, waterfalls, etc.): 4 or more seconds
- Fireworks: .5 to 4 seconds
- Street scene at night: 8-10 seconds
To FREEZE motion:
Children: at least 1/160s
Sports: 1/500s – 1/2000s
Moving water/cars: 1/1000s and up
I hope this helps! Don’t be afraid to experiment! That is the best way to learn, and don’t get discouraged if you don’t get it right the first time around! Thank you for having me Jamielyn!
Shari Hanson is a self-taught, natural light portrait photographer based in Huntington Beach, California. She has been lucky in love and happily married for 10 years and is the proud mama of 4 adorable sons.